PVC (Cloruro di Polivinile)

 

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most used plastic materials in the world. The properties of this amorphous thermoplastic material are extremely variable depending on the additives used. It can be rigid and tough as used for example in water pipes, or flexible as used in textile applications.
PVC is largely obtained via processes carried out in emulsion (E-PVC) and in suspension (S-PVC).
For a correct usage, additives are combined with the resin (stabilisers, lubricants, impact shields, charges, plasticisers if necessary): a highly versatile compound is thereby obtained (in a simply mixed dry-blend form or in extruded granules) which can be manufactured using all the transformation processes.

Chemical Formula PVC: -(CH2CHCI)n-
CAS Number PVC: 9002-86-2
Chemical Name PVC (IUPAC): poly(chloroethanediyl)

PVC resin commercial names and producers:

 

  • Formolon (Formosa Plastics, Taiwan/USA)
  • Shin-Etsu (Shin-Etsu, Japan/Netherlands)
  • Shintech (Shintech, USA- Shin-Etsu group)
  • Vicir (Cires, Portugal - Shin-Etsu group)
  • Inovyn PVC (Inovyn EU)
  • Lacovyl (KemOne EU)
  • Vynova (Vynova EU)
  • Westlake (Westlake USA)
  • Vinnolit (Vinnolit - Westlake group)
  • Oxyvinyls (OxyChem USA - Occidental Petroleum group)
  • Primex/Iztavil (Mexichem)
  • Vestolit (Vestolit - Mexichem group)
  • EPC (Egyptian Petrochemicals Company)
  • Rusvinyl PVC (Rusvinyl RUS)
  • TCI (Sanmar Chemical EGY/Chemplast IND - Sanmar Group)
  • Unipar (Unipar Indupa ARG/BRA - former Solvay Indupa)
  • Norvic (Braskem BRA)
  • Neralit (Spolana CZ)
  • Polanvil (Anwil POL)
  • Petvinil (Petkim TR)
  • Vinnol (vinyl copolymer - Wacker D)

PVC compound commercial names and producers:

 

  • Benvic (Benvic Europe FR/IT/ES)
  • AlphaGary/Alphamed (AlphaGary - Mexichem group)
  • Evicom/Hy-Vin/Vinakon/Vaycron/FRiLA/EcoVin/Timbercel/Resista (Ineos Compounds UK/EU)
  • EcoVyl/MixVyl/Greenvil-Med (TPV compound IT)
  • Nakan (Ivy Group FR/IT/ES/D/USA, on October 2018 under firm bid by Westlake to acquire)
  • Fainplast (Fainplast IT)
  • Finproject (Finproject divisione compound IT)
  • Sovinil/Microtech/Rubflex (Sovere compounds IT)
  • Industrie Generali (Industrie Generali IT)
  • Vipa (Vipa IT)
  • Stir (Stir compounds IT)
  • Chimiplastica (Chimiplastica Lombarda IT)
  • Vinilchimica (Vinilchimica IT)
  • A.C.I. (Agenzia Chimica Italiana IT)
  • Apiflex (API IT - Trinseo group)
  • Modenplast (Modenplast IT)
  • BEGRA (Begra Granulate D)
  • Decelith (PCW D)
  • Lifolit (Hexpol D/SWE - former Mueller Kunststoffe)
  • SorVyl (Polymer-Chemie D - Polymer Group)
  • ProvaMed PVC (Actega D - Altana group)
  • Geon (PolyOne USA)
  • Apex/FireGuard/Flexalloy (Teknor Apex USA)

Main PVC Compounds:

 

  • Rigid PVC
  • Plasticized PVC
  • PVC foam
  • PVC anti-impact
  • PVC+ABS
  • PVC+SAN
  • PVC+FV
  • PVC+TPU
  • PVC+PMMA

Italian PVC distributors / EU:

 

  • Nexeo Solutions IT (Mexichem, Sabic)
  • Interpolimeri IT (Polanvil)
  • Arcoplex Trading IT (MixVyl, EcoVyl)
  • Nevicolor IT (MixVyl, WoodVyl)
  • Distrupol POL (Ineos Compounds)
 

Chemical and Physical Properties:

PVC is considered stable and safe for room temperature applications. It proves to be very sensitive to light and heat; these elements produce a degradative effect which manifests itself initially with yellowing and (at higher temperatures of around 180 °C) decomposition from which hydrochloric acid is released.
The additives generally employed include stabilisers, lubricants, process aids, pigments, impact modifiers and fillers. The characteristics of PVC include good self-extinguishing properties, robustness, good resistance to atmospheric agents (conservation of colour and rigidity, impact resistance) and excellent dimensional stability.

PVC standard density: 1,37 – 1,43 g/cm3
PVC melting point Tm: 185-195 °C
PVC glass transition temperature Tg: 81-87 °C

 

PVC mercati di applicazione

 

  • Construction piping (for drinking water, for drains, gutters and rainwater)
  • Fittings and valves (pressure and non pressure)
  • Window profiles
  • Technical profiles (interior and exterior)
  • Bottle Packaging (cosmetic/detergent/food/pharmaceutical)
  • Medical (bags, tubes, accessories)
  • Flexible and spiral tubing (food and technical use)
  • Electrical cables (insulation and cladding)
  • Vinyl floors
  • Tarpaulins and sheaths for waterproofing structures and vehicles
  • Vinyl discs
  • Rigid and plasticized film for packaging and stationery
  • Sporting and leisure equipment

PVC transformation technologies

 

  • Rigid or plasticized extrusion
  • Rigid, semi-rigid o plasticized injection
  • Injection-blow moulding
  • Extrusion-blow moulding
  • Thermoforming
  • Rotational moulding
  • Encapsulation
  • Calendering

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